Publications Page

            Please click on any of the underlined citations to download the following articles. Most of the articles are PDF links so you will need Adobe Reader (free on internet). Some of the dates are out of order because some journals are behind on publishing, but the top-most publications indicates the most recent publication appearing in a journal. The majority of articles below are scientific (peer-reviewed); however, I do include some popular articles from magazines.


4 “sticky posts” (papers that are important and will remain at the top of this list):

Way, J. G. 2016. Blackballed by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife: Research Obstruction Testimonial by an Independent Eastern Coyote/Coywolf Biologist. Eastern Coyote Research Publications 5: 1-15. URL: This document is fairly self-explanatory in how the state has obstructed my research.  It is now a separate page on my website: Please contact the Governor of Massachusetts to voice your opinion.


Way, J.G. 2016. Why the eastern coyote should be a separate species: the ‘coywolf’. The Conversation. 11 May. URL: This paper explains why I believe the eastern coyote should be called coywolf, Canis oriens. It is written in the academic journal The Conversation to explain, in layman’s language, the findings of the article just below here (Way and Lynn 2016).


Way, J.G. and Lynn, W.S. 2016. Northeastern coyote/coywolf taxonomy and admixture: A meta-analysis. Canid Biology & Conservation 19(1): 1-7. URL: This paper summarizes the literature and suggests that not only should ‘coyotes’ in the Northeast be called coywolves, but that they warrant new species status, Canis oriens – meaning eastern canid!


Way, J.G. 2013. Taxonomic Implications of Morphological and Genetic Differences in Northeastern Coyotes (Coywolves) (Canis latrans × C. lycaon), Western Coyotes (C. latrans), and Eastern Wolves (C. lycaon or C. lupus lycaon). Canadian Field-Naturalist 127(1): 1–16. This is an important scientific paper suggesting that the eastern coyote should more appropriately be called “coywolf” given their mixed species ancestry and intermediate morphological and genetic status.


Most recent publications at the top of this list:

Way, J.G. 2017. Book Review – Wolves of the Yukon. Canadian Field Naturalist 131: 291-293. A very cool book about a place that I would love to visit one day.


Carlesco, A., J.G. Way, and L. Kane. 2017. Complaint about information quality: Use of the Connolly and Longhurst (1975) paper in justifying coyote control. URL: 23 pages. This document challenges an old study that will no doubt start to legally reform carnivore management nationwide. We were able to get a lot of major people/scientists to sign on to this including Jane Goodall! It is the beginning of a new era of challenging special interest dominated flawed wildlife (specifically carnivore) management and this document will be used to challenge carnivore hunting and control programs in the very near future.


Jackman, J. L., and J. G. Way. 2018. Once I found out: Awareness of and attitudes toward coyote hunting policies in Massachusetts. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 23(2): 187-195. DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2017.1397824. This is an exciting new paper that shows the general public’s distaste for carnivore hunting and how they are overwhelming opposed to hunting practices on coyotes. I am sure that future research will verify this in most of the U.S. Will state wildlife agencies acknowledge this and guide future management to how the public wishes, or will they remain special interest focused on satisfying the small minority of people that hunt carnivores? Added March 6, 2018: Paper just became available as a print version – above reference was updated for that version.


Way, J.G. 2017. Book Review – Heart of a Lion: A Lone Cat’s Walk Across America. Canadian Field Naturalist 131: 82-84. This is a great book about a cougar that made it from South Dakota to Connecticut before getting killed by a car. I hope this spurs the recovery of mountain lions to the East.


Way, J.G. 2016. Coyotes finally get their own biography. Ecology 98(1): 285–287. This is a very cool book about coyotes that has received national attention.


Way, J.G. 2016. Book Review – Dead in Good Company: A Celebration of Mount Auburn Cemetery. Canadian Field Naturalist 130: 253-254.


Way, J.G. 2016. Book Review – Wolf Land. Canadian Field Naturalist 130: 250-252. This book, by Carter Niemeyer, is a great read!


Way, J. G. 2016. Coywolf: A new species in our midst? International Wolf 26(3, fall): 28-29. Please note that there is an error on the first page and the canid to the right should say western not eastern coyote. Otherwise it is a nice account, in layman’s language, of the uniqueness of the eastern coyote or coywolf.


Way, J.G. 2016. Book Review – Wild Wolves We Have Known: Stories of Wolf Biologists’ Favorite Wolves. Canadian Field Naturalist 130: 85-87. This was one of my all-time favorite reviews as I really enjoyed reading the book.


Way, J.G. 2015. Book Review – Wolves on the Hunt: The Behavior of Wolves Hunting Wild Prey. Canadian Field Naturalist 129: 297-299. This was perhaps my favorite book review of the last couple years of me doing these reviews. Also, please refer to the right hand column side of page 2 (page 298 of the journal article) about the importance of national parks for this book.


Way, J.G. 2015. Book Review – My Watery Self: Memoirs of a Marine Scientist. Canadian Field Naturalist 129: 204-205.


Way, J.G. 2015. Book Review – The Carnivore Way: Coexisting with and Conserving North America’s Predators. Canadian Field Naturalist 129: 100-101. This is a very important book with the vision of recovering carnivores throughout the western United States.


Way, J.G. 2014. Book Review – Societies of Wolves and Free-ranging Dogs. Canadian Field Naturalist 128: 423-424.


Way, J.G. 2014. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management. Canid Biology & Conservation. 17(2): 9-15. URL: In this paper, I offer avenues to improve red wolf recovery and, importantly, offer 8 strategies many of which include revising state agency management of carnivores, specifically canids.


Way, J.G. 2014. Book Review – Wild again: The struggle to save the black-footed ferret. Canadian Field Naturalist 128: 212-214. A fascinating read on a little-known animal.


Way, J.G. 2014. Book Review – Deer. Canadian Field Naturalist 128: 210-211.


Bruskotter J.T., A. Treves, J.G. Way. 2014. Carnivore Management. Pages 83-90 in B.S. Steel (editor). Science and Politics: An A-To-Z Guide to Issues and Controversies. CQ Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. Update Feb. 2015: PDF not available yet as far as I gather.


Kane, L., and J.G. Way. 2014. Carnivore Conservation Act of Massachusetts. Revised version June 2014 (original version July 2013). 21 pages. URL:  The CC Act was revised June 2014 to include a “Carnivore Conservation Stamp” for non-hunters and wildlife watchers to be able to purchase (section 3.d) and it defines where the funds for 3.d (carnivore stamp) and 3.c (Carnivore Hunting Tag) are dedicated. Secondly, we add an important term in section 3.f called “harvest threshold” that is aimed at preserving the natural social organization and population stability of each carnivore species. Lastly, we revised 3.i to make the act more palatable and fair for farmers. We really like the additions to this version as it allows non-hunters to put their money where their mouths are to help support carnivore conservation and assist livestock and pet owners with preventing depredations.


Way, J. G. 2014. Book Review – Yellowstone Wildlife: Ecology and Natural History of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Canadian Field Naturalist 128: 97-98.


Way, J.G. 2013. Book Review – In The Presence of Buffalo: Working to Stop the Yellowstone Slaughter. Canadian Field Naturalist 127: 366-367. This book was written to stop the mindless (or maybe I should say mindful) hate and discrimination shown by state and federal governments toward wild bison populations.


Kane, L., and J. G. Way. 2013. Petition to create a Carnivore Conservation Act in Massachusetts. 20 pages. URL: This is a major event. I believe that Louise and I crafted North America’s first Carnivore Conservation Act. While this is intended for MA, we hope that it is eventually made into a national act, similar to how Raptors and Eagles are protected by special legislation. We are in the early stages and need help with legislators and other people to get the ball rolling on this.


Way, J. G. 2013. Book Review – The Secret World of Red Wolves: The Fight to Save North America’s Other Wolf. Canadian Field Naturalist 127: 280-281. The red wolf program is under siege by hybridization with coyotes and people killing them. I offer suggestions to help the program in this book review.


Way, J.G., and B.N. White. 2013. Coyotes, red foxes, and the prevalence of Lyme disease. Northeastern Naturalist 20(4):655-665. This paper questions the findings from a paper authored by Levi et al. (2012). Here, we make the case that coyotes may indeed be an agent that can help reduce Lyme disease similar to what is claimed for red foxes.


Way, J. G. 2013. My Yellowstone Experience: A Photographic and Informative Journey to a Week in the Great Park. Eastern Coyote Research, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 152 pages. This is my second full-length book following Suburban Howls. MYE is 152 pages with 306 pictures printed in full color on glossy paper.


Way, J.G. 2012. Eastern coyote/coywolf life cycle in southeastern Massachusetts and some commonly asked questions. Eastern Coyote Research Publications 4: 1−5. URL: This paper answers many questions that I have been asked over the years and does so in a paper that can be referenced. It includes an often asked question: “How many coyotes are there?” I updated the paper June 2013.


Way, J. G. 2012. Love wolves and hate coyotes? A conundrum for canid enthusiasts. International Wolf 22(4, winter): 8-11. A popular (not peer reviewed) article summarizing my (and others’) feelings on why society treats wolves so much differently than coyotes.


Way, J.G., and J.T. Bruskotter. 2012. Additional Considerations for Gray Wolf Management after their Removal from Endangered Species Act Protections. Journal of Wildlife Management. 76(3): 457-461. Note: this is my first publication with this respected scientific journal, as well as my first on the coywolf’s large cousin, Canis lupus. The theme of the article is very similar to the opinions that are expressed on the Management Recommendations section of this webpage.


Way, J.G. 2012. Seasonal and Study Site variation in Box-trapping Eastern Coyotes. Canid News. 15.2: 1-5. URL:  Note: this is my 2nd scientific paper on box trapping “coyotes” despite the fact that people still say it can’t be done!


Way, J.G. 2010. Double-litters in Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon) Packs Following the Death or Disappearance of a Resident Territorial Male. Canadian Field Naturalist 124(3): 256-257. The utility of allowing people to kill coyotes and coywolves is becoming increasingly questioned. This paper piggie-backs on the “Pack Density Doubling after Death of a Male” paper to show that it isn’t so simple as to kill coyotes/coywolves and reduce their populations. In fact, I am convinced that leaving coyotes and coywolves alone will eventually allow them to settle into a lower density, more stable population composed of older animals that cause fewer problems with people and have large territories that they keep other coyotes/coywolves out of. Hopefully, one day state fish and game departments will recognized this and will appropriately revise their hunting regulations to better protect predators by not allowing people to needlessly kill social, intelligent animals essentially for fun.


Way, J.G. 2011. Eastern Coyote/Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon) Movement Patterns: Lessons Learned in Urbanized Ecosystems. Cities and the Environment (CATE) 4(1): article 2, 12 pages. This important peer-reviewed paper summarized much of my research from the previous 10+ years, and gives a perspective of eastern coyote/coywolf ecology, focusing on movement patterns.


Way, J.G., and B. Timm. 2011. Record Pack-density of Eastern Coyotes/Coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon). American Midland Naturalist 165(1):201-203.  Note: This is my first publication with this long-standing journal. It documents a pack living at a very high density in an urban area.


Way, J. G., B. C. Timm, and E. G. Strauss. 2009. Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon) Pack Density Doubles Following the Death of a Resident Territorial Male. Canadian Field Naturalist 123(3): 199-205Note: this is a major finding. This paper scientifically documents the killing of a breeding male Coywolf and the subsequent increase in density from his original territory. Many people don’t believe the claim that killing coyotes/coywolves can increase a local population but life isn’t so simple as kill one and reduce the population.


Way, J. G. 2009. Standing-Over in captive Coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon). Canadian Field Naturalist 123(3): 262-264. This paper illustrates another advantage of captive studies; you just don’t see this type of behavior in the wild, and if so, it is very uncommon. Previously, only Dr. Dave Mech has quantified this behavior with Gray Wolves in the High Arctic.


Way, J. G. 2009. Observations of Coywolves, Canis latrans x lycaon, Crossing Bridges and Using Human Structures on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Canadian Field-Naturalist 123(3): 206-209. This paper provides important documentation of the use of human structures by coyotes and how they might just associated these things (bridges, buildings) as just another part of their territory similar to more wooded areas of their range.


Way, J.G. 2009. Incidental captures of American Crows in coyote-sized box traps. Journal of Field Ornithology 80(4): 433-437.  Coywolves are not the only creatures that like bait! Crows are supposed to be very difficult to catch but I have captured over 150 in box traps.


Way, J. G., and R. D. Cabral. 2009. Effects of Hierarchy Rank on Caching Frequency in a Captive Coywolf (Eastern Coyote), Canis latrans x lycaon, Pack. Canadian Field Naturalist 123(2): 173-175. The importance of captive studies is illustrated here as this finding would be nearly impossible to document in the wild.


Connare, C. 2010 (Fall). Pack Mentality: Can we live peacefully with coywolves among us?. UMass Amherst Magazine 5(1): 35-38.  A nice article on my work from my alma mater about my attempt to make this research a long-term study.


Way, J.G. 2010. Coywolf (Eastern Coyote): Canis latrans x lycaon. AT (Appalachian Trail) Journeys 28-29.


McBride, B. 2009. Book Review – Suburban Howls: Tracking the Eastern Coyote in Massachusetts. Canadian Field Naturalist 123: 83. A nice review of my book, Suburban Howls.


Way, J.G., L. Rutledge, T. Wheeldon, B.N. White. 2010. Genetic characterization of Eastern “Coyotes” in eastern Massachusetts. Northeastern Naturalist. 17(2): 189-204. Here is the published version of our paper which recommends that the Eastern Coyote now be called Coywolves due to their mixed heritage from Coyotes and Red/Eastern Wolves. I believe it is not appropriate to call them Coyotes because at least 1/3 of their background is from wolves, and 2/3 of their background does not seem to derive from Western Coyotes (> 1/3 of mtDNA haplotypes relates to Coyotes but is only found in Eastern Wolves and Coywolves, not Western Coyotes).


Way, J. G., and B. C. Timm. 2008. Nomadic Behavior of an Old and Formerly Territorial Eastern Coyote, Canis latrans. Canadian Field-Naturalist 122(4): 316-322. This scientific peer-reviewed paper shows the importance of individuals. Wildlife agencies unfortunately focus on populations, but obviously individuals form the core of populations and some individuals are particularly important to a system (and to people that watch them).


Way, J. G. 2008. Eastern Coyotes, Canis latrans, Observed Feeding on Periodical Cicadas, Magicicada septendecim. Canadian Field-Naturalist 122(3): 271-272. This article illustrates just how adaptable these animals are. They were observed feeding on prey that had not been available for the past 17 years!


Glowa, J., W. L. Pepperman, C. L. Schadler, J. Butera, and J. G. Way. 2009. Petition submitted to protect wolves and allow wolf recovery in the northeast. Submitted to U.S. Department of Interior on 31 January 2009. 17 pages.  This paper seeks to give the eastern coyote or coywolf more legal protection since people who shoot and kill a full-bodied wolf (gray or eastern) literally get a slap on the wrist when they say, “I thought I was killing a coyote.” They are really committing a crime when they kill a wolf.  Update 19 June 2010. We finally have news: the service rejected our request (what a surprise) to list the Gray Wolf as a Distinct Population Unit in the Northeast but 2 things remain possible: (1) we can finally appeal the finding and a judge is more likely to meet our demands than state and federal wildlife agencies, and (2) there still is a chance to list the Coywolf (still called Coyotes by the service) under the Endangered Species Act to better protect Wolves naturally returning to the Northeast. Read letter here.


Way, J.G. 2009. How does a curriculum intervention that anchors instruction to the study of urban coyote behavior affect student learning? Electronic Journal of Science Education 13(1): 1-31. This paper shows some of the ways that you can utilize local wildlife species to educate students.


Way, J. G., T. Higginbotham, D-L. Szumylo, and E. G. Strauss. 2009. Factors affecting eastern coyote activity levels in captivity. Canid News 12.4: 1-11. URL:  Note: this is another publication related to the captive eastern coyote study that I did. This type of paper is just about impossible to do on wild coyotes.


Way, J. G. 2009. Assessing White-tailed Deer Abundance in the Town of Barnstable, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Eastern Coyote Research Publications 1: 1-11. URL: This paper details how deer are much less abundant on the mid-Cape than in most places on the East Coast. As I have said before, I honestly see more wolves in Yellowstone in the 1 week a year (on average) that I visit the park compared to an entire year looking for deer (and of course coywolves) on Cape Cod where I am frequently active at dawn/dusk and at night.


Way, J.G. 2007. Letter on Proposed Coyote Management in Massachusetts. Eastern Coyote Research Publications 3: 1-4. URL: Note: This is my official letter voicing my strong disagreement with increasing the “coyote” hunting season back in 2007. My caution was ignored and the minority of hunters that hunt coyotes won – perhaps not surprisingly as many people (including myself) thought the public meetings were just for show. That is, even if 80% were against the extension, it was going to happen anyway. I hope a ballot initiative down the road changes this.


Way, J.G. 2006. Creating a Wildlife Watching Area in the town of Barnstable. Eastern Coyote Research Publications 2: 1-18. URL: Note: This is a paper detailing my push for a wildlife watching area on Cape Cod, similar to our many national parks out west. The letter has been ignored or denied by Mass Wildlife and the Town of Barnstable.


Way, J. G. 2007. Social and Play Behavior in a Wild Eastern Coyote, Canis latrans, pack. Canadian Field-Naturalist 121(4): 397-401. Note: this paper scientifically details the playful, sentient side of eastern coyotes.


Way, J. G. 2007. Movements of Transient Coyotes, Canis latrans, in Urbanized Eastern Massachusetts. Canadian Field-Naturalist 121(4): 364-369. This paper shows how transients move long distances, even in urbanized locales.


Way, J. G. 2008. Coywolf: Uncovering the Genetic Secrets of the Eastern Coyote. Nature Photographers Online Magazine (December):


Way, J. G. 2008. Eastern Coyote: Coyote, Wolf, or Hybrid? International Wolf 18(3): 7-10. Note: this publication is from the International Wolf Center ( which is an educational center in Ely, Minnesota. My dream and goal is to create an Eastern Coyote Discovery Center on Cape Cod which mimics the wolf center’s format. You can also view the article from their online magazine here.


Way, J.G. and Eatough, D. 2008. Implementing an authentic research project on eastern coyotes at an urban high-school. Cities and the Environment 1(1): article 5, 12pp.


Way, J. G. 2007. Suburban Howls: Tracking the Eastern Coyote in Urban Massachusetts. Dog Ear Publishing, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. 338 pages. Buy here:


Way, J. G., and D. L. Eatough. 2006. Use of “micro”-corridors by Eastern Coyotes, Canis latrans, in a heavily urbanized area: Implications for ecosystem management. Canadian Field-Naturalist 120(4): 474-476.


Way, J. G., S. M. Cifuni, D. L. Eatough, and E. G. Strauss. 2006. Rat poison kills a pack of Eastern Coyotes, Canis latrans, in an urban area. Canadian Field- Naturalist 120(4): 478-480.


Russo, C. 2008. The eastern coyote: One man’s life work. Wildlife Conservation. 111(1): 52-53.   Please note: this article is a non-peer reviewed, non-scientific article. Rather it is a popular article on my research and appeared in this internationally known wildlife magazine!


Way, J. G., D-L M. Szumylo, and E. G. Strauss. 2006. An ethogram developed on captive Eastern Coyotes, Canis latrans. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 120(3): 263-288.


Way, J. G. 2004. Survival of 8-week-old wild eastern coyote pups following the death of their mother. Northeast Wildlife 58: 66-71.


Way, J. G. 2007. A comparison of body mass of Canis latrans (Coyotes) between eastern and western North America. Northeastern Naturalist 14(1):111-124.


Way, J. G., and R. L. Proietto. 2005. Record size female Coyote, Canis latrans. Canadian Field-Naturalist 119(1): 139-140.


Way, J. G. 2005. Assessing student learning and interest in eastern coyotes.  Dissertation, Boston College. 285 pages.

Introductory pages (10 pages)

Body of Dissertation (285 pages)


Way, J. G., I. M. Ortega, and E. G. Strauss. 2004. Movement and activity patterns of eastern coyotes in a coastal, suburban environment. Northeastern Naturalist 11(3): 237-254.


Way, J. G., I. M. Ortega, and P. J. Auger. 2002. Eastern coyote home range, territoriality and sociality on urbanized Cape Cod. Northeast Wildlife 57: 1-18.


Way, J. G. 2002. Radio-collared coyote crosses Cape Cod Canal. Northeast Wildlife 57: 63-65.


Way, J. G., and J. Horton. 2004. Coyote kills harp seal. Canid News 7.1: 1-4. URL:


Way, J. G., and E. G. Strauss. 2004. Old-aged coyote in an urbanised landscape. Canid News 7.2: 1-3. URL:


Way, J. G, P. J. Auger, I. M. Ortega, and E. G. Strauss. 2001. Eastern coyote denning behavior in an anthropogenic environment. Northeast Wildlife 56: 18-30.


Way, J. G. 2003. Description and possible reasons for an abnormally large group size of adult eastern coyotes observed during summer. Northeastern Naturalist 10(3): 335-342.


Way, J. G., I. M. Ortega, P. J. Auger, and E. G. Strauss. 2002. Box-trapping eastern coyotes in southeastern Massachusetts. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(3): 695-702.


Way, J. G. 2001. The eastern coyote: documenting the habits of one of Cape Cod’s newest residents. Conservation Perspectives, the online journal of the New England Chapter of the Society for Conservation Biology. This article is not currently available online so I scanned the article into a color pdf (click here)


Way, J. G. 2000. Ecology of Cape Cod coyotes (Canis latrans var.). Masters Thesis. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 107 pages.


Way, J. G. 1996. Baseline data on the interactions of a population of white-tailed deer, eastern coyote and red fox inhabiting a barrier beach ecosystem on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Honors Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 35 pages.

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